Why are MEK inhibitors given along with BRAF inhibitors?

Why are MEK inhibitors given along with BRAF inhibitors?

Therefore, the premise behind the subsequent clinical trials combining inhibitors of both MEK and mutant BRAF kinase was that they would help to delay this MAPK-driven acquired resistance and result in longer duration of responses, higher rate of tumor responses, and decrease the toxicities observed from paradoxical …

How does a BRAF inhibitor work?

The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib, dabrafenib and encorafenib are used in the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. They selectively target BRAF kinase and thus interfere with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway that regulates the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells.

What is adjuvant immunotherapy?

Adjuvant immunotherapy aims to eliminate residual microscopic melanoma cells via the immune system, to reduce the risk of future cancer recurrence, and to improve the overall chance of cure [1].

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What is BRAF mutation in melanoma?

A BRAF mutation is a change in a BRAF gene. That change in the gene can lead to an alteration in a protein that regulates cell growth that could allow the melanoma to grow more aggressively. Approximately half of melanomas carry this mutation and are referred to as mutated, or BRAF positive.

What is BRAF MEK inhibitors?

MEK inhibitors The MEK gene works together with the BRAF gene, so drugs that block MEK proteins can also help treat melanomas with BRAF gene changes. MEK inhibitors include trametinib (Mekinist), cobimetinib (Cotellic), and binimetinib (Mektovi).

How does the BRAF gene become mutated?

A BRAF mutation can be inherited from your parents or acquired later in life. Mutations that happen later in life are usually caused by the environment or from a mistake that happens in your body during cell division. Inherited BRAF mutations are very rare, but they can cause serious health problems.

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What is BRAF stand for?

BRAF is a human gene that encodes a protein called B-Raf. The gene is also referred to as proto-oncogene B-Raf and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, while the protein is more formally known as serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf.

When is adjuvant therapy given?

Adjuvant therapy is often used after primary treatments, such as surgery, to lessen the chance of your cancer coming back. Even if your surgery was successful at removing all visible cancer, microscopic bits of cancer sometimes remain and are undetectable with current methods.

What does adjuvant mean in medical terms?

Medical Definition of adjuvant (Entry 1 of 2) 1 : serving to aid or contribute. 2 : assisting in the prevention, amelioration, or cure of disease adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery.

What causes BRAF gene mutation?

How common is BRAF mutation in melanoma?

Activating BRAF mutation has been estimated to occur in approximately 50\% of cases of cutaneous melanoma. Targeted therapies have shown significant benefit in the adjuvant setting, with a 53\% decrease in the risk of relapse when compared with placebo.