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What is a futile cycle in biochemistry?

What is a futile cycle in biochemistry?

A futile cycle, also known as a substrate cycle, occurs when two metabolic pathways run simultaneously in opposite directions and have no overall effect other than to dissipate energy in the form of heat. For example, when energy is suddenly needed, ATP is replaced by AMP, a much more reactive adenine.

How do bacteria outcompete other species?

Under certain ratios of nutrient concentrations, competing microbes can stably coexist, while under other conditions, specific taxa can be outcompeted due to acute nutrient limitation. Over time, consumption of limiting nutrients will shape the course of competition.

Which of the following describe how biofilms become resistant to many antibiotics?

Which of the following describe how biofilms work to be resistant to many antibiotics? Some biofilm microbes can produce protective compounds to stop antibiotic activity and thereby protect the entire biofilm. Which microorganisms uses inorganic chemicals for energy and carbon dioxide for carbon?

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What is a futile cycle give an example of a potential futile cycle?

Futile cycles are processes in which the only net change is energy dissipation. A common example of a futile cycle is carboxylating PEPC activity countered by decarboxylating PEPCK activity (Fig. 5).

What does futile cycle and substrate cycle mean?

A futile cycle, also known as a substrate cycle, occurs when two metabolic pathways run simultaneously in opposite directions and have no overall effect other than to dissipate energy in the form of heat. It has been reported that the glucose metabolism substrate cycle is not a futile cycle but a regulatory process.

Why are bacteria the most successful form of life?

Numerically and by biomass, bacteria are the most successful organisms on Earth. Much of this success is due to their small size and relative simplicity, which allows for fast reproduction and correspondingly rapid evolution.

Can bacteria fight bacteria?

Bacteria, a type of microbe, produce small compounds called bacteriocins that can kill other microbes that they compete with for resources. Bacteriocins can help us solve problems, such as antibiotic resistance or food spoilage.

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How biofilms protect bacteria from antibiotics?

In biofilms, poor antibiotic penetration, nutrient limitation and slow growth, adaptive stress responses, and formation of persister cells are hypothesized to constitute a multi-layered defense. The genetic and biochemical details of these biofilm defenses are only now beginning to emerge.

Why are bacteria in biofilms more resistant to antibiotics?

Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance to …

What role does a futile cycle play in metabolic regulation?

Both cases potentially play important roles in metabolic regulation. Futile cycles actively shift the effective equilibrium by expending energy; the magnitude of changes in effective equilibria and sensitivities is a function of the amount of energy used by a futile cycle.